|ABBREVIATIONS, TERMS AND DEFINITIONS|
|- M -|
|m - Metre(s); male; married;
MA - Master of Arts
Macintosh computer - A device and operating system, now superseded by PowerMac models and the Mac OS.
mailbombs - some person of limited imagination sends a huge number of emails to someone, in the hope that the volume of data will crash their machine.
Maj - Major
MajorDomo - A mailing list manager that processes email requests.
Man. - Management
Mans - Mansions
Mar. - March; Maritime
Maritime Distress Channel - An INMARSAT satellite channel between a ship in distress and a coast earth station assigned in response to a distress-priority request message.
Maritime mobile satellite-service - A mobile-satellite service in which mobile earth stations are located onboard ships; survival craft stations and emergency position-indicating radiobeacon stations may also participate in this service.
Maritime mobile service - A mobile service between coast stations and ship stations, or between ship stations, or between associated on-board communication stations; survival craft stations and emergency position-indicating radiobeacon stations may also participate in this service.
Maritime Safety Information (MSI) - Navigational and meteorological warnings, meteorological forecasts, distress alerts and other urgent safety related information broadcast to ships.
Maritime SAR plan - A plan developed by coastal States following formal agreement between the parties concerned, based on SAR facilities previously declared, and including appropriate arrangements for providing SAR services in accordance with the 1979 SAR Convention.
masc - masculine
math - (US) mathematics
maths - (GB) mathematics
max - maximum
MB - Bachelor of Medicine
MC - (US) Marine Corps; Master of Ceremonies; (US) Member of Congress; (GB) Military Cross
MCC - (GB) Marylebone Cricket Club (the governing body of English cricket)
Mc - Megacycle(s)
MD - Doctor of Medicine
Med(it) - Mediterranean
MES - Mobile Earth Stations - For maritime use they are termed Ship Earth Stations (SES) and on land they are termed Land Earth Stations (LES) or Land Mobile Earth Stations (LMES).
MF - Medium frequency (300 - 3000 kHz)
mg - milligram(s)
Mgr - Monsignor
MHz - Megahertz
MI5 - (GB) National Security Division of Military Intelligence
Microsoft - Software company that produce Windows & Windows NT OS.
MID - Maritime identification digits
MIDI - Musical Instrument Digital Interface. This refers to the industry standard for the physical connection of a musical instrument to a computer. If you see a sound file with the suffix mid, then it will probably have been produced via this method.
min - Minute(s); minimum
misc - miscellaneous
Mission Control Centre (MCC) - A COSPAS-SARSAT ground system element which receives alert data from its local user terminal(s) and distributes that information to affiliated SAR points of contact or forwards it to other MCCs. The MCC may also receive alert data from another MCC and receive and distribute COSPAS-SARSAT system information.
mkt - market
ml - mile(s); millilitre(s)
mm - millimetre(s)
MMSI - Maritime Mobile Selective-call Identify code (as in DSC)
MO - Mail Order; Medical Officer; Money Order
mod cons - modern conveniences
mod - moderate; modern
modem - a contraction of modulator/demodulator. An analogue to digital signal converter.
Mon - Monday
MP - Member of Parliament (House of Commons); Military Police
MPEG - Motion Picture Experts Group. A compression format for video enabling high-quality picture sequences to be stored on disk. The more common version, MPEG II, offers even higher compression rates than its predecessor, which means that more images can be stored in less space.
mpg - miles per gallon
mph - miles per hour
Mr - Mister
Mrs - Mistress
Ms - Miss; Ms Title prefixed to the (first name and the) surname of a woman, whether married or unmarried. Ms may be used if we do not know whether the woman to whom we are writing is single or married. If we are writing to a married woman who prefers to use her maiden name, then we should address her as Ms or Miss, followed by her own Christian name or initials.
MS(S) - Manuscript(s)
ms - Millisecond(s)
MSc - Master of Science
MT - Motor Tanker
Mt - Mount
MUDs - Multiuser Dimensions, other worlds where you can create characters and environments in a shared, distributed digital space. Fantasy lands.
multimedia - This term refers to the use of sound and graphics. If you bought a "multimedia PC", you would probably find that it comes with a sound card, speakers or headphones, a CD-ROM drive (to store sound and images) and will have enough memory and disk space for sound and image files.
multithreading - An operating system feature which allows an appropriately-designed program to run several tasks concurrently.
|- N -|
|N - north
NAAFI - Navy, Army and Air Force Institute
nat - national; native; natural
National DSC frequencies - Frequencies assigned to individual coast stations or groups of stations on which DSC calling is permitted (this may include working frequencies as well as calling frequencies). The use of these frequencies must be in accordance with Radio Regulations.
NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Nav. - Navigation
NAVAREA - Short title of an area in the world-wide navigational warning service.
NAVAREA warning - Long-range warning broadcasts issued by an area co-ordinator of the world-wide navigational warning service for his area and broadcast by powerful station or stations to cover the whole of the area, for which the area co-ordinator is responsible, and parts of adjacent area.
Navigation safety communications - Intership VHF radiotelephone communications for the purpose of assisting the safe movement of ships.
NAVTEX - Narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy system on 518 kHz for transmission of navigational and meteorological warnings and urgent information to ships. See also: International NAVTEX Service.
NB - nota bene take special note of
NBDP - Narrow Band Direct Printing
NCO - Non-Commissioned Officer
NCS - Network Go-ordination Station (for INMARSAT)
NE - northeast
NHS - (GB) National Health Service
N MILE - International nautical mile
NM - Notice to Mariners
NNE - north-northeast
NNW - north-northwest
NON - Unmodulated continuous wave emission
no(s) - number(s)
non-U - not upper class; vulgar
Nov - November
nr - near
NRT - Net Registered Tonnage
NSF - The American National Science Foundation
NSFNet - The NSF's network of five supercomputers
NSPCC - (GB) National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
NT - New Testament
NW - northwest
NY(C) - New York (City)
NZ - New Zealand
|- O -|
|O & M - organisation and method
OAP - (GB) old-age pensioner
OAS - (US) Organisation of American States
OAU - Organisation of African Unity
ob - obiit died
OCC - Operations Control Centre (for INMARSAT)
Occas - Occasional
Oct - October
OECD - Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
OHMS - On His/Her Majesty's Service
O-level - (GB) Ordinary level (examination)
On-scene commander - The commander of a rescue unit designated to co-ordinate surface search and rescue operations within a specified search area.
On-scene communications - Communications between the ship in distress and assisting units.
ono - or nearest offer
op cit - opere citato in the work mentioned
op - opus; operation
OPEC - Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
opp - opposite
orch - orchestra(l); orchestrated
OS - Ordinary Seaman
OSI - Open Systems Interconnect
OT - Old Testament
Oxon - Oxoniensis of Oxford University; Oxfordshire
oz - ounce(s)
|- P -|
|P - Parking
p - page; penny, pence; per
PA - Position Approximate; Personal Assistant; Press Association; Public Address (System)
pa - per annum per year
PACKET - This is a unit of data, which is typically a part of a file, prepared for transmission across a network.
Packet switching - Transmission technique for routing slices of data between destinations between which there is no predefined path.
para(s) - paragraph(s)
Paired frequencies - Frequencies which are associated in pairs; each pair consisting of one transmitting and one receiving frequency.
parallel port - This refers to a plug-and-socket connection that can transfer a complete byte of data at a time (serial ports transfer only one bit at a time). Mainly used for plugging a printer into your PC.
PASV Transfer Mode - PASV Mode forces "data" connections to be established by the client, rather than the server (which is the default). PASV Mode may be required for users who are behind a router-based firewall.
PAYE - pay as you earn
PC - (GB) Police Constable; (GB) Privy Councillor; (US) Peace Corps
PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect. This is a standard bus design for computer motherboards and expansion slots that can transfer 32 or 64 bits of data at one time. Its expansion slots are compatible with ISA cards, too. PCI has taken over as the standard format for modern PCs.
PCMCIA - Now called PC card, this refers to a method of expanding your computer's capabilities via a credit card-sized connection. Despite the elegance and simplicity of this approach, particularly by comparison with the somewhat crude plug-in adapter card, high costs mean PC cards are used mainly on portable computers.
pd - paid
PDSA - People's Dispensary for Sick Animals
PE - physical education
PEN - International Association of Writers
PG - Paying Guest
Ph D - Doctor of Philosophy
Pk - Park
pkt - packet
Pl - Place
PLC, Plc, plc - public limited company
PM - Prime Minister
pm - post meridiem after noon; per month
PO - Personnel Officer; Petty Officer; Post Office; Postal Order
PO Box - Post Office Box
POE - Port of Entry
Polar Orbiting Satellite Service - A service which is based on polar orbiting satellites which receive and relay distress alerts from satellite EPIRBs and which provides their position.
POP - Point of Presence. An Internet server accessible to a community of subscribers.
pop - popular; population
POR - Pacific Ocean Region, coverage area of INMARSAT satellite
Positioning - Establishing the geographical place of the unit in distress (normally expressed in degrees and minutes of latitude and longitude).
poss - possible; possibly
POW - Prisoner of War
pp - pages
pp - per procurationem on behalf of (precedes name of person signed for)
PPP - Point to Point Protocol. Sends data packets over serial lines and supports asynchronous and synchronous systems.
PPS - post postscriptum additional postscript
pr - pair; price
PR - Public Relations
Pres - President
Preventive actions - Collecting, sorting and disseminating information or taking other actions which will either help to reduce the number of distress incidents or, when they occur, will facilitate rescue or expedite the SAR operation.
pro tem - pro tempore for the time being; temporarily
PRO - Public Records Office; Public Relations Officer
pro - professional
Prof - Professor
pron - pronounced; pronunciation
Prot - Protestant
Prov - Province
Ps - Psalm
PS - Postscript
PSBR - public sector borrowing requirement
PST - (US) Pacific Standard Time
pt - part; payment; pint; point
PT - Physical Training
PTA - Parent-Teacher Association
Pte - (GB) Private (soldier)
PTO - Please turn over
Pty - Proprietary
PV - Pilot Vessel
Pvt - (US) Private (soldier)
pw - per week
PX - post exchange (US equivalent of NAAFI)
|- Q -|
|QC - Queen's Counsel
QED - quod erat demonstrandum which had to be proved
qt - quart
qv - quod vide which may be referred to
|- R -|
|R - River; Royal
r - radius; right
R3E - Telephony using amplitude modulation: single sideband, reduced carrier.
R & D - research and development
RA - Rear-Admiral; Royal Academy; Royal Academician
RADA - Royal Academy of Dramatic Art
Radio Regulations - Means the Radio Regulations annexed to, or regarded as being annexed to, the most recent International Telecommunication Convention which is in force at any time.
Radiotelegraph auto alarm - An automatic alarm receiving apparatus which responds to the radiotelegraph alarm signal and has been approved.
RAF - Royal Air Force
RAM - Random Access Memory where anything can happen, depending on the software and the imagination that bags it.
RAM - Royal Academy of Music
RC - Red Cross; Roman Catholic
RCM - Royal College of Music
Rd - Road
rec(d) - received
ref - referee; reference; refer(red)
Rep - Repertory; Representative; Republic(an)
Repd - Reported
res - residence; resigned; reserved
Rescue Co-ordination Gentre (RCC) - A unit responsible for promoting efficient organization of search and rescue (SAR) services and for co-ordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region.
Rescue unit - A unit composed of trained personnel and provided with equipment suitable for the expeditious conduct of search and rescue operations.
resp - respectively
Responsible Operator Position (ROP) - A point of the distress-priority call destination from which an operator handles the call in compliance with national instructions. This position may be under the authority of either the national SAR Agency or Telecommunications Administration. A responsible operator position (ROP) may be located at the CES, telecommunications switching centre, SAR agency/RCC or remote from any listed locations.
ret(d) - retired
rev - revolution
Rev(d) - Reverend
rh - right hand
RIP - requiescat/requiescant in pace may he/they rest in peace
RISC - Reduced Instruction Set Computer. This is a type of CPU which can reduce to a minimum the number of instructions that are processed simultaneously, thereby increasing the computer's efficiency.
rly - railway
rm - room
RM - Royal Marines
RN - Royal Navy
ROM - Read Only Memory, where the only instructions carried out are those for which the memory has been programmed.
A chunk of memory containing prewritten instructions, typically in the form of chips on circuit boards or as non-rewritable instructions on a CD-ROM. Stored in ROM are basic functions like the power-on procedures for your PC.
ROT13 - A substitution cypher which warns you that a newsgroup's discussion could well offend you, in case you are of a sensitive disposition.
router - In packet-switching network, such as the Internet, a router is a device which examines packets of data and sends them to their appropriate destination.
rpm - revolutions per minute
RSM - Regimental Sergeant Major; Royal School of Music
RSPCA - Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
RSVP - repondez s'il vous plait please reply
RT - Radio telephony
rt - right
Rt Hon - Right Honourable
Rt Rev - Right Reverend
R(S)V - Revised (Standard) Version (of the Bible)
RU - Rugby Union
Rx - Receiver
|- S -|
|S - south
s - Second(s)
SA - South Africa
sae - stamped addressed envelope
SALT - Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
SAR - Search And Rescue
SAR co-ordinating communications - Communications necessary for the co-ordination of ships and aircraft participating in a search resulting from a distress incident.
SAR point of contact (SPOC) - In the COSPAS-SARSAT system mission control centres (MCCs), rescue co-ordination centres (RCCs) and other established and recognized national points of contact which can accept responsibility for the co-ordination of the rapid and effective transfer of alert data to enable the rescue of people in distress.
SARSAT - Search and rescue satellite aided tracking.
Sat - Saturday
Satellite emergency position-indicating radiobeacon - An earth station in the mobile-satellite service, the emissions of which are intended to facilitate search and rescue operations.
SAYE - save as you earn
sc - scilicet namely
s/c - self-contained
Sch - School
sci - science
SCSI - Small Computer Systems Interface. This is a method of attaching storage and other devices to a PC. It's versatile, because a single SCSI adapter can handle a mix of up to eight different devices - generally these will be such things as hard drives, CD-ROM drives, and scanners. But the cheaper solution tends to be EIDE for disks and a separate adapter for other devices.
SDR - Special Drawing Right. 1 SDR = 3.061 gold francs
SE - southeast
Sea area Al, A3, A3 and A4 - See Basic Concept of GMDSS.
Search and rescue (SAR) region - An area of defined dimensions within which search and rescue services are provided.
sec - second(ary); secretary
SEN - State Enrolled Nurse
Sen - Senate; Senator; Senior
Sept - September
Seq - Sequence
serial port - A socket that can transfer one bit of information at a time (parallel ports can transfer an entire byte at a time). Used primarily for modems, occasionally for a mouse, sometimes for other devices.
Service area - A part of the world within which a COSPAS-SARSAT alert data distribution service is provided by the mission control centre (MCC).
SF - Science Fiction
sgd - signed
SGML - Standardized General Markup Language
Sgt - Sergeant
SHAPE - Supreme Headquarters of Allied Powers in Europe
SHAREWARE - This is software that's available on a try-before-you-buy basis. Typically, the prospective purchaser downloads the product from the Internet or loads it from a disk, and gets a specified period of use before having to buy and register it. This will be enforced by either your own moral values or by "nag" screens which pop up at regular intervals.
Ship Earth Station (SES) - A mobile earth station in the maritime mobile-satellite service located on board ship.
Ship station -A mobile station in the maritime mobile service located on board a vessel which is not permanently moored, other than a survival craft station.
SI units - Systeme International d'Unites International System of Units
Sig - Signal
SIMM - Single In-line Memory Module - small circuit boards holding a row of memory chips; you plug them into special sockets on the motherboard. It's a simple and compact way to add memory to a PC.
Single frequency - The same frequency used for transmission and reception.
SLIP - Serial Line Interface Protocol. A protocol for sending data packets over serial lines.
SLIP/PPP - Serial Line Interface Protocol/Point to Point Protocol. These are standards for connecting directly to the Internet rather than simply logging on to it via a host computer.
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol that defines the rules by which computers transfer mail messages.
Sn(r) - Senior
Soc - Society
Sol - Solicitor
SOLAS - Safety of Life at Sea
SOS - international distress signal
sp gr - specific gravity
sp - special; spelling
Sp - Spain; Spanish
spamming - sending often useless messages to vast numbers of people.
Sq - Square
Sr - Senior; Sister
SRN - State Registered Nurse
SS - Steamship
SSB - Single SideBand
SSE - south-southeast
SSFC - Sequential Single-Frequency Code System
SSW - south-southwest
St - Saint; Street
Sta - Station
STD - subscriber trunk dialling (telephone); sexually-transmitted disease => VD below
Stn - Station
Str - Strait; Street
sub(s) - subscription; substitute
Sum - Summer
Sun - Sunday
SUN Microsystems - The people who developed and still sell general-purpose computers running under the Unix operating system.
Supt - Superintendent
Survival craft - A craft capable of sustaining the lives of persons in distress from the time of abandoning the ship.
Survival craft station - A mobile station in the maritime mobile service or in the aeronautical mobile service intended solely for survival purposes and located on any lifeboat, lifecraft or other survival equipment.
SW - southwest
swap file - Also known as virtual memory, this is a portion of your hard disk drive set aside for windows to use as a cache, basically to speed up transfers to and from disk.
System information - In the COSPAS-SARSAT system tabulated data (ephemeris and time calibration) that affect the determination of distress beacon locations using the satellite sub-track; current status of all system elements; information related to interference.
|- T -|
|T - temperature
t - time; ton(s)
TB - Tuberculosis
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Together these two dialects comprise the universal language for the digital word, or at least its vowel set. They are the glue that holds the Internet together.
Tech - Technical (College)
Tel - Telephone
Telnet - Internet Protocol that allows one machine to appear on a remote screen.
temp - temperature; temporary (secretary)
temp inop - Temporarily inoperative
Ter(r) - Terrace; Territory
Thurs - Thursday
Time calibration - Data used to relate the SARSAT satellite time code in an alert message to the actual elapsed time from a known satellite time epoch. In association with the ephemeris data, the corrected satellite time information in each satellite processed beacon transmission is used to determine the location of the transmitting beacon.
Time of closest approach (TCA) - The time that the satellite is closest to the beacon during a satellite pass.
TKO - technical knock-out
TNT - Tri-nitro-toluene explosive
trans - translated
treas - treasurer
Trspn - Transportation
TSS - Traffic Separation Scheme
TU - Trade Union
TUC - (GB) Trades Union Congress
Tues - Tuesday
TV - television
Tx - Transmitter; Transmission
|- U -|
|U - Union; Upper; upper class,
fashionable, polite, => non-U above
UART - The Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter chip controls the transfer of data over a serial port, which in practice means the information that has to pass between your modem and PC. For modern modems, you will need at least a 16550 (or, even better, a 16650) UART chip rather than the older, and more limited, 8550 type that is still encountered on some PCs.
UDI - unilateral declaration of independence
UDP - User Datagram Protocol. A poor relation to TCP, used for transmitting a measly 1500 characters.
ufn - Until further notice
UFO - unidentified flying object
UHF - ultra high frequency
UK - United Kingdom
UN - United Nations
UNCTAD - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNICEF - United Nation's Childrens Fund
UNINSTALLER - when you want to get rid of a program, if you simply delete it, you will you leave files scattered throughout the hard drive, and they take up valuable disk space. An uninstaller utility logs what happened when the program was originally installed so it can backtrack to remove all files and restore the original parameters in key functions like the Windows 95 registry.
Univ - University
Unix - A multi-tasking operating system widely used on the Internet.
UNO - United Nations Organisation
UNRWA - United Nations Relief and Works Agency
UPI - United Press International
upload - Transferring a file from your local workstation to a remote host or workstation.
URL - Universal Resource Locator, or Uniform Resource Locator as it's now known; specifies an Internet resource.
US - United States
USAF - United States of America; United States Army
UseNet - Contraction of User's Network, a bulletin board system for newsgroups which can operate independently of the Internet, although this is by far the most common means of access.
USN - United States Navy
USS - United States Ship
USSR - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
USF - United States Air Force
UT - Universal Time
UTO - Uncorrected Universal Time
UT1 - UTO corrected for polar variation
UT2 - UTO corrected for polar and seasonal variation
UTC - Co-ordinated Universal Time
|- V -|
|V - Roman 5; victory; volt
v - very; verse; versus; vide see, refer to
V & A - Victoria and Albert (Museum in London)
vac - vacation
VAT - Value Added Tax
VC - Vice Chairman; Vice Chancellor; Vice Consult; Victoria Cross; Vietcong
VD - Venereal Disease => STD above
VDU - visual display unit
VE Day - Victory in Europe (end of Second World War in Europe: 8.5.1945)
Ven - Venerable
VHF - Very High Frequency (30 - 300 MHz)
VIP - very important person
Virus - A digital invader propagated by rogue software programmers.
viz - videlicet namely
VLCC - Very Large Crude Carrier
VLF - Very Low Frequency
vol - volume
VP(res) - Vice-President
VRAM - Video Random Access Memory. This term refers to a special type of DRAM that is commonly used on video controllers in order to speed up the rate at which images are displayed, thus improving the visual quality of graphics-intensive applications.
VS - (US) Veterinary Surgeon
VSO - (GB) Voluntary Service Overseas
VTM - Vessel Traffic Management
VTS - Vessel Traffic Service
|- W -|
|W - Watt; west
w - week; width; with
WAIS - Wide Area Information Servers that let you retrieve content using natural language searches, indexed searching and very clever protocols.
WARC - World Administrative Radio Conference
WASP - (US) White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
wavetable synthesis - This is the successor to FM synthesis. Wavetable synthesis can store samples of instruments and is able to use them to generate quite realistic-sounding music.
wc - water closet
WCC - World Council of Churches
Wed - Wednesday
wef - With effect from
WHO - World Health Organisation
WI - West Indian; West Indies; Women's Institute
Win - Winter
Windows - Operating system sold by Microsoft, running on Intel chips.
Windows NT - Microsoft's answer to Unix, but designed by Microsoft alone.
Winsock - is a specification that network software providers use as a guideline for the standard application programming interface to their network software.
wk - week; work
WMO - World Meteorological Organization
WNW - west-northwest
WO - Warrant Officer
World-wide Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS) - A service established by the International Maritime Organization and International Hydrographic Organization for the purpose of co-ordinating the transmissions of radio navigational warnings in geographical areas.
Worm - Self-replicating piece of computer code that grows as it moves across a network.
wpb - waste paper basket
wpm - words per minute
WRAC - Women's Royal Army Corps
WRAF - Women's Royal Air Force
WRNS - Women's Royal Naval Service
WSW - west-southwest
WT - Radio Telegraphy
wt - weight
www - World Wide Web. A hypertext-based information retrieval system; the collection of Internet servers that use http protocols; the bit of the internet with pictures.
Wx - Weather
|- X -|
|X - Roman 10; a kiss; an unknown
number; thing, name, etc
Xmas - Christmas
XML - Extensible Markup Language
|- Y -|
|Y - Yen (Japanese currency)
YHA - Youth Hostels Association
YMCA - Young Men's Christian Association
yr - year; your
YWCA - Young Women's Christian Association